Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Literature Review BPM

Question: Talk about theLiterature Review for BPM. Answer: Presentation The administration on the business framework follows the most developed strategies for the productive upgrade of the association before the general public and other serious associations. The Business Process Management (BPM) is a technique and a procedure of finding the adaptable targets which bolster the earth in various conditions. The working methodology of the association is found all the more productively in a successful way, so as to fulfill the whole techniques on the association. The business forms are the methodology and exercises for the best endurance and the executives of the association framework (Rouse, 2016). The way toward dealing with the business strategies, understood BPM engineering is executed for the accommodation of the administration. The framework may deal with the business procedure in a productive way. The design parts the administration procedure into the various divisions. At that point, the utilization of the advanced innovation on the BPM procedure give s incredible upgrade on the business. The straightforward work process weaving framework uses BPM framework in an association. This procedure may remember different effects for the administration procedure (Mondejar, 2017). The distributed computing contains the properties to tie BPM in a continuous savvy framework. Writing Review As per (Anand, Fosso Wamba and Gnanzou, 2013), the Business Process Management (BPM) started during 1990 and at present it for the most part spins and spotlights on the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Case Handling (CH), Customer Relation Management (CRM), Workflow the board (WFM), Enterprise Application Integration (EAI, etc. Further, the paper characterizes the BPM with the execution on new innovations. In this paper, the creators have explored different papers from the year 2005 to 2011 and the exploration confirms that the advancement pace of utilizing the utilizations of BPM, BPR, and BPI. According to (Jalali, 2016), the viewpoint direction expects to help the cross-cutting worries in process models. Numerous perspective direction methods are created. For instance, the angle direction in administration sythesis and necessity building. In any case, these are just produced for the basic procedure models. It is expressed in (Heravizadeh, 2009), that there were intends to build up a well known administration approach for the executives practice and data innovation. To begin with, it builds up the quality mindful life pattern of BPM. It chiefly centers around the quality in business process the board life cycle. Second, this proposed model that considers the structure to plan the quality prerequisites for the business procedure model. It is important to plan these necessities as a lot of quantifiable components. At that point, the proposed technique at long last considers the issues of value in the business forms. This lead to build up the main driver investigation strategy to discover the issues identified with quality. As indicated by (Lahajnar and RoÃ¥ ¾anec, 2016), the base up approach is utilized for persistent improvement of the business forms in todays associations. For the persistent improvement of business forms, different methodologies are found. These methodologies comprises of cycle reiteration of exercises. The exercises incorporates PDCA cycle, for example, arranging, do, check and act. Further, the papers features on the AS-IS and TO-BE strategies. According to (Mller, J. Maack and D. Tan, 2007), it was resolved that the BPM has different points of interest in the business field. This paper centers around the idea of BPM and its element like the work process the board. It is additionally established that it is a lot of essential for the association to comprehend its responsibility to BPM and how the organizations need to thank and value the innovation of BPM. The BPM innovation is summed up as the long lasting cycle and it's anything but a coincidental sending. The administration must have away from of BPM to make progress and it likewise helps the partnership between the business chiefs and IT for a fruitful procedure change. It stress more on the unmistakable connection between the BPM, which is an administration, administration, a technique, a methodology, it helps in demonstrating discipline simultaneously and it helps in picking up process competency. It gives spontaneous creation and cross-process joining in culture and, aptitudes. This can give a successful authoritative change in the association. In addition, it is additionally expected to help in defeating the disappointments and clashes in the business. It is expressed in (Vanderfeesten and A. Reijers, n.d.), that the associations work more on putting resources into the work process framework usage for improving, robotizing and smoothing out the business forms. The primary piece of this paper investigates on the operational productivity for the social change and in the financial estimation of the association. It is presumed that the association of partners and administration alongside successful correspondence is significant. The examination likewise decided certain effects of work process the executives framework and the explanations behind the effect is that the work process framework mechanized crafted by the secretaries at the same time, it had affected by including extra work in various degrees of the association. As indicated by (Dhring, Schulz and Galkin, 2015), the new arrangements of adaptable work process the executives empowers the essential runtime control-stream deviations. Then again, it is resolved that the progressions must be handled straightforwardly on the particular work process model. This paper shows that the normal work process model can furnish execution adaptability ideas alongside perspective direction, runtime adjustment and variation development. At that point, the paper shows the proposed a conventional mechanized plan time model change procedure for separating the variation work process parts to the sub-forms and the adjustment forms is utilized with a particular example punctuation to create a selector structure that works on the sub-process that are recursive with the assistance of a standard motor. The procedure was assessed by a model change strategy with SAP Net Weaver BPM/BRM and it created a completely BPMN2 consistent executable ancient rarities alongside a sta ndard set. The standard set are used as a fundamental interface to the regularly changing procedure deviations. According to (Jalali, Wohed and Ouyang, n.d.), the paper has decided a lot of prerequisites which give subtleties of how the angle arranged business process models must order in a Workflow Management System. To make this conceivable a Colored Petri Net model for a help is planned. The condescended model in this paper is dissected with the assistance of state space examinations on different conditions. It is expressed in (Fang, 2010), that the paper further reveals insight into how distributed computing innovation ties BPM progressively shrewd framework. This paper establishes that the cloud assumes a conspicuous job in being mindful to give high accessibility and reacts promptly to the necessities of the application in the association. The examination on the different existing frameworks, gives numerous plans to making the framework increasingly compelling. This endeavor makes to broaden the structure and the board in an ideal conceivable manner. At that point, in the investigation of Business Process Management Demystified: An instructional exercise on Models, Systems and Standards for Workflow Management (WFM), the utilization of the Petri nets on the administration of the business procedure in an association is depicted for the successful administration (Bonn, 2010). As indicated by (van der Aalst, 2016), there are different frameworks, strategies, models, work processes and approaches present in the upkeep of business the board. The conventional arrangement of BPM followed WFM dependent on their own methods. At that point, the utilization of the Petri nets on the BPM secures significant things on the procedures. The displaying approach is diverse for every framework. The examples of the BPM is given as the XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) by the Work Flow Management Coalition (WfMC) and is analyzed by progressively central work methodology. The execution of the Petri nets on the BPM framework gives best and ground-breaking cellar for the association looking after system. According to (DER AALST, 2017), the BPM framework gives the business procedure stage for the straightforward work process weaving. In this procedure, the arranged framework engineering are largely straightforward to the whole administration framework. The monetary emergency is raised with the use of different administration frameworks on the association. In the interfaces working procedure, the information about the BPM procedure must be included by the creators. The procedure of work process depicts the whole arrangement of the administration on the framework. This straightforward work process weaving framework attempts to diminish the expense of the framework which is associated with the BPM framework. The incorporation of methods with the works by the administration area of the association, at that point this framework can be embedded in different programming which is empowered for the procedure of support. Rather than the use of the Petri nets the Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP ), the Model View Controller (MVC) and block attempt of wrapping are used for the administration forms. Thus, the expense of the framework can be decreased with the framework. The structured working techniques are associated with the product applications. At that point, the structure of the significant errands are interconnected with the product framework. The web type applications can diminish remaining burdens of the procedures. The procedures are empowered by the discovery framework through the current web application items. At long last, straightforward work process weaving framework gives the interconnection of the product framework with the web applications. The different investigation in (Pesic and van der Aalst, 2017), gives the procedures for the progressively changing conditions of the association. The strategy for the BPM is fixed in the underlying stages. The whole framework is dispensed to the area of the administration. The professional

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Determining the enthalpy change for different chemical reactions Essay Example

Deciding the enthalpy change for various synthetic responses Essay I acclimated myself with the Material Safety Data Sheets of poisonous substances.PLANNING (A)Enthalpy (H)1 The entirety of the interior vitality of the framework in addition to the result of the weight of the gas in the framework and its volume:Esys is the measure of inward vitality, while P and V are separately weight and volume of the system.However, to make it easier, this definition can be abbreviated. Enthalpy (H) is a proportion of warmth in the system.To measure the enthalpy we need to initially make sense of the mass of a substance under a consistent tension and decide the interior vitality of the system.The enthalpy change (H)2 is the measure of warmth discharged or assimilated when a concoction response happens at steady pressure.Standard conditions3 are utilized so as to permit tests that are taken at various areas to come out with similar outcomes. Standard weight is 1 climate or 1.0135 x 105 pascals. Standard temperature is 25o C. Standard state is the physical state at which a component or a compound exists at standard conditions.Hypothesis: If the temperature of a given substance is known, we may compute the enthalpy of this substance.Experiment I Part IPLANNING (B)Requirements:- 1 measuring glass [250 cm3]-2 test tubes-thermometer-60 cm - 3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive strong anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) [3.75 g]-balanceProcedure:We were furnished with 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive, strong sodium hydrogencarbonate and strong anhydrous sodium carbonate.1. One individual in each pair estimated 30 cm3 of roughly of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive into the beaker.2. We took the temperature of the corrosive and recorded it in table 1.3. We weighted a test tube unfilled and than again when it contained 2.80 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate.4. We recorded the majority in a table like table 1.5. In this manner we included the weighted segment of Na2CO3 to the corrosive and blended the blend cautiously with the thermometer until all t he strong has reacted.6. While blending we recorded the greatest temperature of the solution.DATA COLLECTION2HCl (aq) + Na2CO3 (s)㠯⠿â ½ 2NaCl (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)Mass of cylinder + sodium carbonate28.17 gMass of void test tube25.37 gMass of sodium carbonate utilized (m)2.80 gTemperature of corrosive initially21.8 oCTemperature of arrangement after mixing22.0 oCTemperature change during response (?T)0.2 oCTable 1.DATA PROCESSING PRESENTATIONCalculating the enthalpy change:?H = ms?Tm = 2.80 g Na2CO3 + 30.00 g HCl = 32.80 gs = 4.2 J g - 1 K - 1?T = 0.2 oC = 0.2 K?H = 32.80 g * 4.2 J g - 1 K - 1 * 0.2 K = 27.55 JCalculating the enthalpy change for 1 mole of Na2CO3:M = 106 um2 = 106 gm1 = 2.80 g106 g 1 mole2.80 g x molesx = 2.80g/106g * 1 mole= 0.03 mole0.03 mole 27.55 J1 mole x Jx = 27.55J/0.03mole * 1 mole = 918.33 J?H = 918.33 J = 0.92 kJExperiment I Part IIPLANNING (B)Requirements:- 1 measuring glass [250 cm3]-2 test tubes-thermometer-60 cm - 3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric c orrosive strong sodium hydrogencarbonate (NaHCO3) [3.75 g]-balanceProcedure:We were given 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive, strong sodium hydrogencarbonate and strong anhydrous sodium carbonate.1. One individual in each pair estimated 30 cm3 of around of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive into the beaker.2. We took the temperature of the corrosive and recorded it in table 2.3. We weighted a test tube vacant and than again when it contained 3.70 g of sodium hydrogencarbonate.4. We recorded the majority in a table like table 2.5. Accordingly we included the weighted segment of NaHCO3 to the corrosive and blended the blend cautiously with the thermometer until all the strong has reacted.6. While blending we recorded the most extreme temperature of the solution.DATA COLLECTIONHCl (aq) + NaHCO3 (s)㠯⠿â ½ NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)Mass of cylinder + sodium hydrogencarbonate29.08 gMass of void test tube25.38 gMass of sodium hydrogencarbonate utilized (m)3.70 gTemperature of corros ive initially21.5 oCTemperature of arrangement after mixing14.0 oCTemperature change during response (?T)7.5 oCTable 2.DATA PROCESSING PRESENTATIONCalculating the enthalpy change:?H = ms?Tm = 3.70 g NaHCO3 + 30.00 g HCl = 33.70 gs = 4.2 J g - 1 K - 1?T = 7.5 oC = 7.5 K?H = 33.70 g * 4.2 J g - 1 K - 1 * 7.5 K = 1061.55 JCalculating the enthalpy change for 1 mole of NaHCO3:M = 84 um2 = 84 gm1 = 3.70 g84 g 1 mole3.70 g x molesx = 3.70g/84g * 1 mole= 0.04 mole0.04 mole 1061.55 J1 mole x Jx = 1061.55J/0.04mole * 1 mole = 26538.75 J?H = 26538.75 J = 26.54 kJThermal decay of sodium hydrogencarbonate to sodium carbonate:2NaHCO3 (s) à ¯Ã¢ ¿Ã¢ ½ Na2CO3 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)This might be likewise appeared as an enthalpy cycle:2HCl (aq) + 2NaHCO3 (s) 2NaCl (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)Na2CO3 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) + 2HCl (aq)The enthalpy change for the deterioration of sodium hydrogencarbonate might be acquired by deciding the enthalpy change of response between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric corrosive and that between sodium hydrogencarbonate and hydrochloric acid.?H = H(products) H(reactants)?H = 0.92 kJ 26.54 kJ = 25.62 kJExperiment II Part IPLANNING (B)Requirements:- 1 recepticle [250 cm3]-2 test tubes-thermometer-60 cm - 3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive strong calcium oxide (CaO) [3 g]-balanceProcedure:We were furnished with 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive, strong calcium carbonate and strong calcium oxide.1. One individual in each pair estimated 30 cm3 of around of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive into the beaker.2. We took the temperature of the corrosive and recorded it in table 3.3. We weighted a test tube vacant and than again when it contained 3.00 g of strong calcium oxide.4. We recorded the majority in a table like table 3.5. Along these lines we included the weighted segment of CaO to the corrosive and mixed the blend cautiously with the thermometer until the strong has reacted.6. While blending we recorded the most extreme temperature of the solu tion.DATA COLLECTION2HCl (aq) + CaO (s) à ¯Ã¢ ¿Ã¢ ½ CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l)Mass of cylinder + calcium oxide27.92 gMass of void test tube24.92 gMass of calcium oxide utilized (m)3.00 gTemperature of corrosive initially20.0 oCTemperature of arrangement after mixing36.0 oCTemperature change during response (?T)16.0 oCTable 3.DATA PROCESSING PRESENTATIONCalculating the enthalpy change:?H = ms?Tm = 3.00 g CaO + 30.00 g HCl = 33.00 gs = 4.2 J g - 1 K - 1?T = 16.0 oC = 16.0 K?H = 33.00 g * 4.2 J g - 1 K - 1 * 16.0 K = 2217.60 JCalculating the enthalpy change for 1 mole of CaO:M = 56 um2 = 56 gm1 = 3.00 g56 g 1 mole3.00 g x molesx = 3.00g/56g * 1 mole= 0.05 mole0.05 mole 2217.60 J1 mole x Jx = 2217.60J/0.05mole * 1 mole =44352 J?H = 44352 J = 44.35 kJExperiment II Part IIPLANNING (B)Requirements:- 1 measuring glass [250 cm3]-2 test tubes-thermometer-60 cm - 3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive strong calcium carbonate (CaCO3) [3.75 g]-balanceProcedure:We were given 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric c orrosive, strong calcium carbonate and strong calcium oxide.1. One individual in each pair estimated 30 cm3 of roughly of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric corrosive into the beaker.2. We took the temperature of the corrosive and recorded it in table 4.3. We weighted a test tube unfilled and than again when it contained 3.00 g of strong calcium carbonate.4. We recorded the majority in a table like table 4.5. Thusly we included the weighted part of CaCO3 to the corrosive and blended the blend cautiously with the thermometer until the strong has reacted.6. While blending we recorded the most extreme temperature of the solution.DATA COLLECTION2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) à ¯Ã¢ ¿Ã¢ ½ CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)Mass of cylinder + calcium carbonate27.92 gMass of void test tube24.92 gMass of calcium carbonate utilized (m)3.00 gTemperature of corrosive initially20.0 oCTemperature of arrangement after mixing22.0 oCTemperature change during response (?T)2.0 oCTable 4.DATA PROCESSING PRESENTATIONCalculatin g the enthalpy change:?H = ms?Tm = 3.00 g CaCO3 + 30.00 g HCl = 33.00 gs = 4.2 J g - 1 K - 1?T = 2.0 oC = 2.0 K?H = 33.00 g * 4.2 J g - 1 K - 1 * 2.0 K = 277.20 JCalculating the enthalpy change for 1 mole of CaCO3:M = 100 um2 = 100 gm1 = 3.00 g100 g 1 mole3.00 g x molesx = 3.00g/100g * 1 mole= 0.03 mole0.03 mole 277.20 J1 mole x Jx = 277.20J/0.03mole * 1 mole = 9240 J?H = 9240 J = 9.24 kJThermal disintegration of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide:CaCO3 (s) à ¯Ã¢ ¿Ã¢ ½ CaO (s) + CO2 (g)This might be additionally appeared as an enthalpy cycle:2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)CaO (s) + CO2 (g) + 2HCl (aq)The enthalpy change for the decay of calcium carbonate might be acquired by deciding the enthalpy change of response between calcium oxide and hydrochloric corrosive and that between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.?H = H(products) H(reactants)?H = 44.35 kJ 9.24 kJ = 35.11 kJCONCLUSION EVALUATIONDetermining the enthalpy change for a concoction response perm its us to choose whether a given response is exothermic or endothermic.If the enthalpy has a negative sign, as in the Experiment I, at that point the response is exothermic. Warmth vitality is developed, so the measuring glass becomes hotter4.If the indication of enthalpy is sure, at that point comparatively the response is endothermic, as in the Experiment II. Warmth vitality is assimilated and the measuring utencil becomes colder5.The physical properties of responses (various temperatures of recepticles) can be effectively recognized in the reality, even without utilizing any instruments.To assess this lab I would propose utilizing the calorimeter to make the records more solid than by utilizing thermometer. Room temperature may have had an effect on our outcomes and this was plausible the most significant wellspring of vulnerability. Masses of substances were estimated precisely, albeit some moment sums may have been lost while pouring. The weight continued as before, anyway litt le changes may have showed up. We likewise should focus on the measure of gas (CO2) that may have evaded during the trial. It should have been accumulated and put away to make the outcomes relia

Saturday, August 15, 2020

How to Do a Life Review Using a Mind Map - Focus

How to Do a Life Review Using a Mind Map - Focus There are times in your life when you need to make significant decisions about how to continue in your business and/or personal life. At these points, it’s necessary that you establish a clear vision about certain life facts. This process must be honest and complete. And, sometimes, it can also be painful. In this article,  MindMeister Ambassador Jürgen Schulze shares his proven method of how to do an honest life review, using a mind map. In this article, I would like to introduce you to a method that I’ve been using in pre-MindMeister years when friends asked me for help. When I came across the online mind mapping tool MindMeister, this process was improved. I could add the new and fairly innovative dimension of collaboration to the method, resulting in the more formalized approach that you’ll find in the  mind map template Im sharing with you today. The mind map and the method behind it will help you during your journey of self-evaluation by compiling relevant information and presenting these facts in a comprehensive format to a friend for input. During this process, you will actually start to see  what you need to do and how. This is the mind map template: Your browser is not able to display frames. Please visit Life Review Template on MindMeister. Click on the Map Actions  button in the bottom bar of the map to maximize it. Click on the same button again to clone this template to your MindMeister account and use it for your own life review! From Napkin to Mind Map Life Is Not Linear! Before we dive deeper into how you can use this mind map yourself, let me just give you the short history of how this method developed in the first place. It all started years back when a colleague of mine shared with me his dilemma about choosing between two fundamentally different career opportunities. The classic Jürgen, would you have a minute for me? in the office right after the first coffee in the morning. What initially sprang to my mind to ask him was: What is it that you’d expect from what’s left of your business life? He replied that he had never thought about that in detail. I continued: What do you think you’re really good at? This is a question that is on the no-go list in todays formal job interviews as much as What do you think you’re really bad at? because there can’t be an honest answer. I got trained on that 16 years ago already in my hiring certification classes at Symantec. However, it is totally OK between two friends in a secluded setting. His answer struck me as I had a totally different picture of him. At this point it became clear to me that his situation and decision process would require some formalization and visualization. And this is how the map was born. Don’t Just Listen. Capture the Meaning! Why did I end up with a mind map, you might ask? There are a couple of reasons. Some, you might be able to relate to. Some are pretty individual to me: Structure does not develop in my head. Information does. That means that I have to put down my information somewhere and structure it there. Linear representation is difficult to structure and I hate scrolling back and forth. Hence, a mind map comes in handy: I can see things at a glance and add topics where I see a gap. While developing the method, I used a mind map to dump my thoughts and experiences in. After a while, these topics could be organized into clusters, which then mercilessly pointed out to me what was missing. I literally saw it! In short: Information creates clusters, shows missing information and promotes further clustering. A very creative flow. Putting things in a meaningful order requires a lot of shuffling around of information and re-clustering. Try to do that in a flowing text and you know why I always choose to use a mind map. When the mind map was finally as complete as I wanted it to be, the question was: How to present it to the target audience? How can a story unfold in the eyes of the beholder? Going through this map is not a linear process. While you answer one question in the map, another answer to an unrelated question on the other side of the map might just pop up in your mind. Because you always see the open spots, you can easily jump left and right, top and bottom and still stick to a structure. Collaboration is the key element of my method. Collaboration works perfectly fine when face to face over a glass of wine. But this is a process that will never come to a final conclusion, as previously noted. Thus, remote collaboration is a smart way to interact. Set the preferences for the map to notify when changes are applied and trigger off a constant flow of remote interaction, which will continuously fine tune the map. Last but not least: Seeing and listening closely are important  while working on such an intimate topic, but you need to go one step further and  truly capture the meaning. A mind map will help you to see things in context, and see  how they develop and relate to each other. This is key for being able to open up and challenge, respectively. When providing feedback, adding visuals to indicate feelings about a certain topic, emphasizing certain elements through formatting and showing consent or dissent by voting, commenting and, most of all, asking (Carl Rogers) are strong tools to drill deeper into the matter and look behind the statements being made. You are able to actually describe digital information (text, content) with analog elements (icons, formatting, position, relation) to create a picture in the mind of the collaborators that they can even talk about without the map in sight. Over a glass of wine, that is! (-; How to Fill Out the Mind Map Simply clone  the mind map template I’ve created to your account and start filling it out. My advice to you would be to start as you would in a typical mind map, with the topic located at 1 oclock, and then move  around the center clockwise. There is a logic in the order suggested in the map, but once you’ve started, you might see answers to other questions popping up in your mind, as previously described. Particularly, when you have a friend reviewing what you do and potentially triggering thoughts you would not have had on your own. The underlying concept of this technique is to answer a set of questions that are clustered under main topics, and have those answers challenged by a close friend. This way, your  self-image (self-perception) can be adjusted to reality by getting an understanding of your public image. However, it requires you to be courageous and to refrain from feeling attacked. In my experience, this process already raises new questions that will have to be answered to understand  the bigger picture and ultimately support the decision-making process. Like life itself, this mind map reflects constant learning and change. To arrive at the exact answer for things might be a challenge as we get older, learn new things and find new priorities in life. However, it is highly advisable to work yourself through all elements at least once in order to have a good and solid starting point for an ever changing life review. My own life review map is now 5+ years old and still in motion! As much as I am… Some Explanation on the Various Mind Map  Topics Vision The dream everyone has in mind. The big picture! Not the I want to be a billionaire-thing. It is about the ultimate goal one wants to achieve and the final destination in that very moment. Desire The journey is the reward. It should be fun and fulfilling. Thus, the way to achieve the goal needs to be clear as there are many ways to Rome! Skills This is where it  gets tricky. What can you do and what are you really good at? This is where self-perception can easily be at war with your public image. And this is where a good friend needs to be ruthless with her/his observations! Missing Skills Admitting whats missing is another painful exercise. But this reflection is required if you want to proceed to the next topic. Ability to Learn Putting things on a timeline makes it a bit easier to answer these questions. As Im getting closer to retirement, I dont bother starting off new revolutions. Improving on the things that Im already good at is what fits into the remaining time. Learning also becomes a bit more difficult with age. However, your choice! Willingness to Learn It is one thing to be able to learn. But do you really want to learn? Learning is progress but learning fundamentally new things might also be stressful. Something to be seriously considered! Strategy A wise friend of mine from Saudi Arabia once told me Failing to plan means planning to fail. Theres another approach, Laissez-faire, which can be useful as well, at a certain point in time. Living a life between boundaries can be limiting or rewarding. That depends on personality. Tactics When the strategy is the tool that youve chosen, tactics are about how to use the tool. This actually puts the strategy at test since a strategy that cannot be delivered upon is not a strategy but a dream. The Value of Life This is likely the most intimate question to ask. And it is likely the only constant in life and hence the most difficult to answer. Being consequent on your values and not bending backwards in times of challenge is a virtue. Network Dont be shy. Life is a give and take, a quid pro quo amongst friends and business partners. Giving is rewarding. Giving without expecting a return is altruism. Always giving without receiving is draining. It is my personal opinion that things will level to equilibrium during a long life. However, there can be a point in time when help is needed. And theres nothing unethical about asking people to return a favor. Professional Identity The classic self-/public picture exercise. This is where you might need more than one friend to give you honest feedback. How you WANT to be seen is not an invitation to act. This is an invitation to evaluate if you HAVE to act or if it is really you. Life in Balance Work gives us meaning, some say. That might be true. Or not. One thing is for sure: We spend more time at work than with our loved ones. It is important to draw a line and make sure that theres enough emotional energy left for yourself and your family after work. Work in Balance Last but not least: How far do you want to go when it comes to work? How much do you want to sacrifice? Clearly defining your limits will help you make a decision. It will also help you to be happy at work and, hence, happy at home! Wrapping up All of that said: Ive, again, gone through this map and come to the conclusion to do what Ive had in my mind for the last 10 years already: Writing a book. If you use my mind map template to do your own life review, Id be curious to hear what you learn and conclude!

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Life Span Development Reflective Paper - 5968 Words

Life Span Development Reflective Paper Introduction Brenda Watson Leadership Coaching September 19, 2010 This has been a very fascinating journey from prenatal, birth to old age. The goal of this paper is to show how my knowledge and understanding of life span development has increased, as well as demonstrate how this knowledge and understanding will apply to and can be used within my area of specialization, Leadership Coaching. As a Social Worker, I have had the opportunity to work with children and families from diverse socioeconomic, ethnic and cultural backgrounds. My experience and training includes extensive work with prenatal, infant and early childhood education and development. Through this course I have been able to†¦show more content†¦Although secure attachment during infancy is the foundation for continued healthy positive development during the lifespan, it is important to understand that other factors can have a significant effect on development later in life (i.e. illness, loss, and trauma). However, research has shown the importance of consistent care giving that is responsive and nurturing and the caregivers’ ability to effectively accommodate more difficult temperament characteristics ,as well as other factors, influence the development of healthy attachment{{64 Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian 2003}}. Research has also shown that infancy and early childhood is the period of d evelopment where scaffolding begins and continues (Vygotsky, 1978; Zhao amp; Orey,1999). There are many other theories related to early childhood development that are just as important in other areas of life span development. Because prenatal, infancy and early childhood represent the beginning of development it is understandable why it is important that emphasis be place on these developmental stages of life. Without a strong foundation on which to build on there can be no secure structure. Theories have been defined with terms such as stages, incremental, multidimensional. Each theory has its’ contributions to and impact on the understanding of humanShow MoreRelatedPersonal Development and Learning Essay example897 Words   |  4 PagesPersonal Development Reflective Essay Assignment The reflective essay will become the primary component of the senior portfolio a few years from now, but the process begins here in PDP 150 as students learn to apply their new reflective skills in developing of an effective portfolio. The reflective essay provides the opportunity to describe and document one’s growth as a person during this time in a student’s life, and the key to understanding the task is to emphasize the term â€Å"reflective.† InRead MoreThe Cultural Perspective On My Life1315 Words   |  6 Pagesshaped by their environments, plus social and cultural factors. Such factors include a person s nationality, race and gender† ( The cultural perspective has had a large impact on my life and comes out in numerous theories. Such as conformity, internalize commitment, post conventional, individuative-reflective and democratic. Conformity Conforming is when you â€Å"identify closely with dominant society† (Daniels, 2015). Starting fifth grade year, I began attempting to conform to the dominant societyRead MoreReflective Paper : Healing Justice1392 Words   |  6 Pages Reflective Paper: Healing Justice As per viewing the video â€Å"Healing Justice† they interaction between the punishment justice system and the healing system have two very distinct opinion and methods. The first nation view if someone changes their ways negatively they cause find their way back. As far as the legal justice system they believe, â€Å"if you did the crime you do the time†. In order to be able to have a full understanding of why the aboriginal push the issue of a holist’s justice, we firstRead MorePiagets Theory of Cognitive Development Essays1715 Words   |  7 Pageslifelong interest in how individuals, especially children, use cognitive development to adapt to the world around them. Piaget published his first paper by the age of 10, completed his bachelor’s degree by the age of 18, and at the age of 22 received his PhD from the University of Neuchatel. Piaget spent many years of his life researching the developmental and cognitive knowledge of children. The Theory of Cognitive Development places focus on human intelligence and developmental thinking. â€Å"InfluencedRead MoreUse Of Solar Light Energy From The Sun Into Electrical Energy Essay1493 Words   |  6 Pageshumans are having on our planet and the major consequences in which we must deal with in order to save the planet. One technique that this paper will focus on is the use of solar panels to convert light energy from the sun into electrical energy. Brief History Solar technology can be dated all the way from 7th century B.C. Early uses included using reflective properties to direct sunlight to create energy (heat) to a specific area. In 1838 French scientist Edmond Becquerel discovered the ‘photovoltaicRead MoreSoren Kierkegaard Essay1309 Words   |  6 PagesProject: Soren Kierkegaard: Mega Mind of the 19th Century Soren Kierkegaard: Mega Mind of the 19th Century As a man whose work spans across areas such as philosophy, theology, devotional literature, and more, Soren Kierkegaard is considered one of the mega-minds of philosophy and the 19th century. He was influenced by many people throughout his life, as well as influencing many people himself. With works that ranged from religious views all the way to developing a â€Å"new† way to view our surroundingsRead More Naturalistic Observation Report Essays1698 Words   |  7 Pagesactivities in their own habitats, and will briefly describe the concepts of superego, egocentrism, operant conditioning, pretend play, and lack of conservation. These concepts are common between the ages 4-6 years of age. The paper will also analyze the interactions using a reflective approach on the psychology of young children. The concept of superego plays an active role in our daily lives. Freud’s interpretation of superego is most simply understood in the natural observation when observing theRead MoreA Sense Of Autonomy And Self Control Essay1569 Words   |  7 PagesFamilial relationships play a vital role in the lives of individuals. Humans form and foster relationships early on in development. Within the first years of life, infants rely on their primary caretakers in order to meet their physical, emotional, social, and psychological needs. As children grow older, they learn to meet their own needs by means of self-regulation. This means to self-regulate is fostered through the attachment cycle, a foundation for relationships that creates and providesRead MoreMy Personal Nursing Theory Of Nursing1655 Words   |  7 PagesMobile, Alabama The gap in the demand and supply for healthcare services in the US and around the world are believed to facilitate the development of advance practice nursing (APN) (Kilpatrick, 2008) and this is the motivation for my pursuance of an APN (i.e. NP) degree. The factors contributing to this gap and facilitating the development of APN include physicians’ shortage, cost containment, etc. In the United States of America, there are four functional roles for APN-clinical nurseRead MoreThe Importance of Critical Thinking Skills in Accounting Education3858 Words   |  16 PagesAC550 - Critical Perspectives in Accounting Individual Critical Research Paper Lecturer: Mary Canning 2012 Gillian Bane 58043884 4/20/2012 AC550 - Critical Perspectives in Accounting Individual Critical Research Paper Lecturer: Mary Canning 2012 Gillian Bane 58043884 4/20/2012 Contents Critical Research Paper†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦2 - Chosen Topic†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.2 - Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Migrations During the Dark Age of Ancient Greece

Well never know exactly how Greece came to create colonies in Asia Minor and in southern areas of Italy, Megale Hellas, known better by the Latin name of Magna Graecia. Here is the modern theory followed by what the ancient Greeks thought had happened. The essence of what we think happened is that a Dark Age invasion of a people known as Dorians swept down from the North, settling first in the Corinthian Gulf and the northwest Peloponnese, then the south and east, and the islands of Crete, Rhodes, and Kos. These Dorians pushed the native Greeks out of their homelands. Eventually some mainland Greeks migrated to Ionia. The ancient Greeks had their own explanation of the Dorian Invasion.... Ancient Version of the Dorian Invasion Archaic Age Hesiod Perseus Theseus Heraclides Hercules Who Were the Dorians? Thucydides on the Greek Colonies Sixty years after the capture of Ilium, the modern Boeotians were driven out of Arne by the Thessalians, and settled in the present Boeotia, the former Cadmeis.... Twenty years later, the Dorians and the Heraclids became masters of Peloponnese; so that much had to be done and many years had to elapse before Hellas could attain to a durable tranquillity undisturbed by removals, and could begin to send out colonies, as Athens did to Ionia and most of the islands, and the Peloponnesians to most of Italy and Sicily and some places in the rest of Hellas.- Thucydides Greeks in Asia Minor During the Trojan War Bronze Age Sallie Goetsch Ionian Settlements Sources: [URL ]Carlos Parada Heraclides[] Early Greek AstronomersIonians mingled with Lydians and Persians and sea-faring people. The Question of a Dorian InvasionThomas Martin Overview of Greek History in this section addresses both the question of the invasion and Greek chronology. Homeric Geography

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Critically analyse the Media’s Focus on young people and Violent Crime Free Essays

Introduction Western society is fascinated with crime and justice. From films, newspapers, everyday conversation, books and magazines, there is a continual rhetoric regarding crime. The mass media plays a crucial part in the construction of criminality and the criminal justice system. We will write a custom essay sample on Critically analyse the Media’s Focus on young people and Violent Crime or any similar topic only for you Order Now The way the public perceive victims, criminals and the members of law enforcement is very much determined by the influences of the mass media (Roberts, Doob, 1990; Surette, 1998). It is therefore essential to take into account the effects that the mass media have on attitudes toward violent crimes, especially those concerning young people. If we start with television programmes we find that there is a link between viewing crime shows on the television is in fact linked to a fear of crime. Fear of crime may be a natural reaction by viewers to the brutality, violence and sometimes even injustices that are portrayed within these programmes. Crimes on television shows reveal certain patterns; there is an overemphasis on violent crimes and offenders are often sensationalised or stereotyped. Murder and robbery are common themes also yet crimes such as burgurlary are less often seen (Surette, 1998). Offenders are portrayed as psychopaths that target vulnerable and weak victims or as business people and professionals that are highly intelligent and violent, with victims being portrayed as helpless and weak (Surette, 1998). Many viewers may not understand the justice system and its process and are even less likely to understand (with some exceptions) the causes and motivations of criminal behaviour. The criminal justice system is portrayed largely as ineffective with the exception of selected heroes that provide justice or in some cases vengeance towards offenders (Surette, 1998). These programmes rarely focus on any mitigating circumstances of criminal behaviour and are unlikely to portray offenders in not only a sympathetic light but even a realistic fashion. On television crime is freely chosen and based on the individual problems of the offender. Analysis of crime drama reveals that greed, revenge and mental illness are the basic motivations for crime and offenders are often portrayed as ‘different’ from the general population (Lichter and Lichter, 1983: Maguire, 1998). This leads to a possible belief by viewers that all offenders are ‘monsters’ to be feared. Consequently heavy viewers may perceive crime as threatening, offenders as violent, brutal or ruthless and victims as helpless. These inaccurate presentations, as well as the portrayal of crime as inevitable or non preventable may lead to an increase in the fear of crime. The news media focus on violent crime is highly selective. Ferrell (2005:150) points out that news media representations highlight ‘the criminal victimization of strangers rather than the dangerous intimacies of domestic of family conflict’. Stanko and Lee (2003:10) note that ‘the violence in the media is constructed ‘as random’, wanton and the intentional acts of evil folk’. News reporting of crime and furthermore of the particular types of crime on which newspaper journalists disproportionately focus on, is selective and unrepresentative. News reporting of crime victims is equally so. Reiner et al stated that the foregrounding of crime victims in the media is one of the most significant qualitative changes in media representations of crime and control since the Second World War (Reiner et al. 2000a,b, 2003). Not all crime victims receive equal attention in the news media. Ocassionally intense media coverage may be devoted to victims who can be discredited on the basis of criminal promiscuous or otherwise questionable past. More often, however media resources are dedicated to the representation of those victims who can be portrayed as ideal. Christie (1986:18) describes the ideal victim as ‘a person or category of individuals who-when hit by crime-most readily are given the complete and legitimate status of being a victim’. This group includes young people. These young people attract massive levels of media attention, generate collective mourning on a near global scale, and drive significant change to a social and criminal justice policy and practice (Greer, 2004; Valier, 2004). In the summer of 2002, two 10 year old girls, Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman went missing from their home in Soham. Their disappearance attracted the biggest ever manhunt in Britain and international media attention. In 1996 two boys of similar age, Patrick Warren and David Spencer, went missing from their homes. Their disappearance failed to register much outside the local press. Shortly after 13 year old Milly Dowler went missing in 2002, the body of a teenage girl was recovered from a disused cement works in Tilbury Docks (Jewkes, 2004). Amongst media speculation that it was another missing teenager, Danielle Jones, who had disappeared almost a year earlier, the body was identified as Hannah Williams, however it was Milly’s story that continued to receive attention whilst Hannah received only a few sentences n the inside pages. Holly and Jessica were clearly seen as ideal victims. They were described using adjectives such as young, bright and energetic. They were from stable and loving middle class family backgrounds and had both achieved well at school. David and Patrick were working class, they were boys, brought up on a West Midlands council estate, in trouble at school and one of them had previously been caught shoplifting. While Holly and Jessica captured the hearts and minds of the nation, Patrick and David did not gain anywhere near as much interest and few people knew about their disappearance, much in the same way Hannah Williams was unknown. Hannah’s murder generated just over 60 articles in the British national press, mostly after she was found. In its first two weeks alone, the hunt for Holly and Jessica produced nearly 900 (Fracassini, 2002). Whilst on one hand the media sensationalise when young people are the victims of violent crimes, it also sensationalises when there is a belief that these young people are in fact the perpetrators of violent crimes. A study carried out by Young People Now, (a publication for people working with children and young people) through research firm Mori, looked at tabloids, local papers and broadsheets over the course of a week. Seventy-one percent of articles concerning young people had a negative tone, while 14 percent were positive and 15 percent were neutral. In addition, 48 percent of articles about crime and violence depicted a young person as the perpetrator, whereas only 26 percent of young people admit to committing a crime, and of those only seven percent involved the police and only a minority were violent-the most common committed crime was petty theft. The picture being painted in the media is one of violent young men with nearly 70 percent of violent stories involving boy s describing them as the perpetrator and 32 percent as the victim, while girls are described as the victim in 91 percent of cases and the offender in 10 percent (Ipsos Mori). In reality 31 percent of boys in mainstream schools admit to having committed a crime compared with 20 percent of girls and boys are more likely to be victims of violent crime than girls (Young people and the Media, 2004). Peter McIntyre, a journalist whose 30 year career has included work on the Oxford Times and editing a Unicef book of guidelines for interviewing children states that children in trouble with the law have some legal protection, but in some cases, because journalists are not allowed to name young people, they feel free to misrepresent them, contributing to the monsterisation of young people (2004). If images of violent yobs predominate, there is a risk that policy makers will respond to stereotypes rather than the true diversity of young people’s needs. The rise of the antisocial behaviour order (ASBO) was seized upon by local and national newspapers as a chance to name and shame young people. From the Sun newspaper’s proposal to hand out ‘SASBO’s (Sun Antisocial Behaviour Orders), to south London paper News’s Shopper’s Shop a Yob Bingo, papers were able to show pictures of these young people, because there were no automatic reporting restrictions on young people sentenced by civil courts, unlike youth courts. All of these reporting’s serve to further fuel media hype and moral panic surrounding young people as violent offenders. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barille, L. (1984) Television Attitudes about Crime: Do Heavy Views Distort Criminality and Support Retributive JusticeIn Ray Surette (ed.) Justice and the Media Issues and Research Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas Bryant, J. Garreth, R.A, Brown, D. (1981). Television viewing and anxiety: An Experimental Examination. Journal of Communication 31: 106-119 Christie,N. (1986) The Ideal Victim in Fattah, E. (ed), from Crime Policy to Victim Policy. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Doob, A. MacDonald, G. (1979) Television Viewing and Fear of Victimization: Is The Relationship CasualJournal of Personality and Social Psychology Ferrell, J. (2005). Crime and Culture in Hale, C. Hayward, K. Wahidin, A. And Wincup, E. (eds), Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fracassini, C. (2002) Missing, Scotland on Sunday. 18 August 2002 Greer, C. (2004). Crime, Media and Community: grief and virtual engagement in late modernity. In Ferrell, J. Hayward, K. Morrison, W. And Presdee (eds). Cultural Criminology Unleashed. London: Cavendish Jewkes, Y. (2004) Media and Crime. London: Sage Lichter, L. Lichter, S. (1983) Prime Time Crime Washington DC: Media Institute Livingstone, S. (1996). On the Continuing Problem of Media Effects. In Curran, J. Gurevitch, M (eds), Mass Media and Society. London: Arnold. Maguire, B. (1988). Image Versus Reality: An Analysis of Prime-Time Television and Police Programs. Crime and Justice II (1): 165-188 Reiner, R. (2002). Media Made Criminality: the representation of crime in the mass media. In Maguire, M. Morgan, R. Reiner, R (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Surrette, R. (1990). The Media and Criminal Justice Policy: Recent Research and Social Effects. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas Valier, C. (2005). Making Sense of the Information Age: Sociology and Cultural Studies, Information, Communications and Society, 8 (4): 439-58 How to cite Critically analyse the Media’s Focus on young people and Violent Crime, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Child Pornography On Internet Essay Example For Students

Child Pornography On Internet Essay In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of informationreadily available. Some of this information can be very useful, some can bemalicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is one of theseproblems. Any one person can find child pornography on the internet with just afew clicks of the mouse using any search engine. Despite webmasters and lawenforcement officials efforts to control child pornography and shut downillegal sites, new sites are posted using several ways to mask their identity. The Internet provides a new world for curious children. It offers entertainment,opportunities for education, information and communication. The Internet is atool that opens a window of opportunities. As Internet use grows, so do therisks of children being exposed to inappropriate material, in particular,criminal activity by paedophiles and child pornographers. Many children firstcome in contact with the Internet at a very young age. Some children becomevictims of child pornography through close relatives who may have abused them. Some children become involved with chat services or newsgroup threads. It isusually through these sites that they meet child pornographers. Children may beasked to send explicit pictures of themselves taken either by a digital cameraor scanned from a polaroid. The pornographer will then post the pictures ontheir web site, sometimes hiding them through encryption, steganography orpassword protecting them using a javascript or applet. Certain efforts have beenmade to control child pornography through legislation. In 1977 the SexualExploitation of Children Act was put into Legislation. (U.S. Code : Title 18,Section 2251-2253) The law prohibits the use of a minor in the making ofpornography, the transport of a child across state lines, the taking of apornographic picture of a minor, and the production and circulation of materialsadvertising child pornography. It also prohibits the transfer, sale, purchase,and receipt of minors when the purpose of such transfer, sale, purchase, orreceipt is to use the child or youth in the production of child pornography. Thetransportation, importation, shipment, and receipt of child pornography by anyinterstate means, including by mail or computer, is also prohibited. The ChildProtection Act of 1984 (U.S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2255) defines anyoneyounger than the age of 18 as a child. Therefore, a sexually explicit photographof anyone 17 years of age or younger is child pornography. On November 7, 1986,the U.S. Congress enacted the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act (U.S. Code: Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that banned the production and use ofadvertisements for child pornography and included a provision for civil remediesof personal injuries suffered by a minor who is a victim. It also raised theminimum sentences for repeat offenders from imprisonment of not less than twoyears to imprisonment of not less than five years. On November 18, 1988, theU.S. Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act (U .S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that made it unlawful to use a computer totransmit advertisements or visual depictions of child pornography and itprohibited the buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining temporary custody orcontrol of children for the purpose of producing child pornography. On November29, 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted US Code : Title 18, Section 2252 making it afederal crime to possess three or more depictions of child pornography that weremailed or shipped in interstate or foreign commerce or that were produced usingmaterials that were mailed or shipped by any means, including by computer. Withthe passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, it is a federal crime foranyone using the mail, interstate or foreign commerce, to persuade, induce, orentice any individual younger than the age of 18 to engage in any sexual act forwhich the person may be criminally prosecuted. The Child Pornography PreventionAct of 1996 amends the definition of child pornography to inclu de that whichactually depicts the sexual conduct of real minor children and that whichappears to be a depiction of a minor engaging in sexual conduct. Computer,photographic, and photocopy technology is amazingly competent at creating andaltering images that have been morphed to look like children eventhough those photographed may have actually been adults. People who alterpornographic images to look like children can now be prosecuted under the law. .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .postImageUrl , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:hover , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:visited , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:active { border:0!important; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:active , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Thomas Hobbes Essay ThesisAbstracts for these laws can be found at The current legislation in place at the federal and state level clearly defineschild pornography, and the standard sentencing for offenders. It also clearlydefines a minor and what activity involving a minor is illegal. What thelegislation does not do is set the standards for retreival of evidence from anelectronic device, namely computers. Also, the current legislation does not setstandards for decrypting child pornography that is protected. One example is theuse of Steganography. Steganography uses a bitstream algorithm to hideinformation in the form of raw binary code within other files suitable to holdinformation. The most commonly used form of Steganography uses the leastsignificant bit of a bitmap image to store virtually any type of information. Every three bytes in a bitmap file represents a pixel. Each of these bytesrepresents a level of red, blue or green. Since there are eight bits in a byte,there can be up to 256 different combinations of 1s and 0s in a single byte. In the case of a bitmap, each unique combination of 1s and 0s represents alevel of red, blue or green. When the colors are combined, there is thepossibility of 256^3 or 4,294,967,296 different colors. In order to hideinformation within a bitmap file, the file in which you want to hide must becopied bit for bit into the last bit of each byte in the bitmap file. This willchange each pixel of the bitmap file at the most by 1 / 2,097,152, depending onwhether the bit being copied is the same as the bit it is replacing. Since thehuman eye can only physically distinguish between an average of 250 differentcolors, a difference of 1 / 2,097,152 is indistinguishable. Since only one bitof the target bitmap is being used to store information, the source file can atmost be 1/8 of the size of the target file. In the case of a bitmap, a highresolution picture can easily hold a lower resolution picture that may containchild pornography. Legally, if a bitmap image is found to contain a hidden imageus ing steganography, there is no legal procedure for extracting that evidencefor a court case. The prosecution would have to somehow explain howsteganography works to a jury, and to the judge, and would have to prove in someway that the information found did in fact come from that bitmap file. Currently, evidence found in this manner is inadmissible in court because thereis no legislation dealing with this type of evidence. Also, there is no standardapproved software that will decode these files. There are several softwareprograms readily available on the internet which will encode or decodeinformation using the least significant bit algorithm. One example is calledHide and Seek. Anyone can obtain this software free of charge, making it easyfor child pornographers to hide their work. Another problem is illicit materialthat is stored on a remote computer. If the perpetrator of child pornographydoes not own the computer that the material is stored on, it would be difficultfor law enforcement officials to obtain a warrant to search a third partyscomputer. Also, there is currently no legislation that defines what space an amachine belongs to a specific do.