Sunday, May 24, 2020

Life Span Development Reflective Paper - 5968 Words

Life Span Development Reflective Paper Introduction Brenda Watson Leadership Coaching September 19, 2010 This has been a very fascinating journey from prenatal, birth to old age. The goal of this paper is to show how my knowledge and understanding of life span development has increased, as well as demonstrate how this knowledge and understanding will apply to and can be used within my area of specialization, Leadership Coaching. As a Social Worker, I have had the opportunity to work with children and families from diverse socioeconomic, ethnic and cultural backgrounds. My experience and training includes extensive work with prenatal, infant and early childhood education and development. Through this course I have been able to†¦show more content†¦Although secure attachment during infancy is the foundation for continued healthy positive development during the lifespan, it is important to understand that other factors can have a significant effect on development later in life (i.e. illness, loss, and trauma). However, research has shown the importance of consistent care giving that is responsive and nurturing and the caregivers’ ability to effectively accommodate more difficult temperament characteristics ,as well as other factors, influence the development of healthy attachment{{64 Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian 2003}}. Research has also shown that infancy and early childhood is the period of d evelopment where scaffolding begins and continues (Vygotsky, 1978; Zhao amp; Orey,1999). There are many other theories related to early childhood development that are just as important in other areas of life span development. Because prenatal, infancy and early childhood represent the beginning of development it is understandable why it is important that emphasis be place on these developmental stages of life. Without a strong foundation on which to build on there can be no secure structure. Theories have been defined with terms such as stages, incremental, multidimensional. Each theory has its’ contributions to and impact on the understanding of humanShow MoreRelatedPersonal Development and Learning Essay example897 Words   |  4 PagesPersonal Development Reflective Essay Assignment The reflective essay will become the primary component of the senior portfolio a few years from now, but the process begins here in PDP 150 as students learn to apply their new reflective skills in developing of an effective portfolio. 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The factors contributing to this gap and facilitating the development of APN include physicians’ shortage, cost containment, etc. In the United States of America, there are four functional roles for APN-clinical nurseRead MoreThe Importance of Critical Thinking Skills in Accounting Education3858 Words   |  16 PagesAC550 - Critical Perspectives in Accounting Individual Critical Research Paper Lecturer: Mary Canning 2012 Gillian Bane 58043884 4/20/2012 AC550 - Critical Perspectives in Accounting Individual Critical Research Paper Lecturer: Mary Canning 2012 Gillian Bane 58043884 4/20/2012 Contents Critical Research Paper†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦2 - Chosen Topic†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.2 - Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Migrations During the Dark Age of Ancient Greece

Well never know exactly how Greece came to create colonies in Asia Minor and in southern areas of Italy, Megale Hellas, known better by the Latin name of Magna Graecia. Here is the modern theory followed by what the ancient Greeks thought had happened. The essence of what we think happened is that a Dark Age invasion of a people known as Dorians swept down from the North, settling first in the Corinthian Gulf and the northwest Peloponnese, then the south and east, and the islands of Crete, Rhodes, and Kos. These Dorians pushed the native Greeks out of their homelands. Eventually some mainland Greeks migrated to Ionia. The ancient Greeks had their own explanation of the Dorian Invasion.... Ancient Version of the Dorian Invasion Archaic Age Hesiod Perseus Theseus Heraclides Hercules Who Were the Dorians? Thucydides on the Greek Colonies Sixty years after the capture of Ilium, the modern Boeotians were driven out of Arne by the Thessalians, and settled in the present Boeotia, the former Cadmeis.... Twenty years later, the Dorians and the Heraclids became masters of Peloponnese; so that much had to be done and many years had to elapse before Hellas could attain to a durable tranquillity undisturbed by removals, and could begin to send out colonies, as Athens did to Ionia and most of the islands, and the Peloponnesians to most of Italy and Sicily and some places in the rest of Hellas.- Thucydides Greeks in Asia Minor During the Trojan War Bronze Age Sallie Goetsch Ionian Settlements Sources: [URL ]Carlos Parada Heraclides[] Early Greek AstronomersIonians mingled with Lydians and Persians and sea-faring people. The Question of a Dorian InvasionThomas Martin Overview of Greek History in this section addresses both the question of the invasion and Greek chronology. Homeric Geography

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Critically analyse the Media’s Focus on young people and Violent Crime Free Essays

Introduction Western society is fascinated with crime and justice. From films, newspapers, everyday conversation, books and magazines, there is a continual rhetoric regarding crime. The mass media plays a crucial part in the construction of criminality and the criminal justice system. We will write a custom essay sample on Critically analyse the Media’s Focus on young people and Violent Crime or any similar topic only for you Order Now The way the public perceive victims, criminals and the members of law enforcement is very much determined by the influences of the mass media (Roberts, Doob, 1990; Surette, 1998). It is therefore essential to take into account the effects that the mass media have on attitudes toward violent crimes, especially those concerning young people. If we start with television programmes we find that there is a link between viewing crime shows on the television is in fact linked to a fear of crime. Fear of crime may be a natural reaction by viewers to the brutality, violence and sometimes even injustices that are portrayed within these programmes. Crimes on television shows reveal certain patterns; there is an overemphasis on violent crimes and offenders are often sensationalised or stereotyped. Murder and robbery are common themes also yet crimes such as burgurlary are less often seen (Surette, 1998). Offenders are portrayed as psychopaths that target vulnerable and weak victims or as business people and professionals that are highly intelligent and violent, with victims being portrayed as helpless and weak (Surette, 1998). Many viewers may not understand the justice system and its process and are even less likely to understand (with some exceptions) the causes and motivations of criminal behaviour. The criminal justice system is portrayed largely as ineffective with the exception of selected heroes that provide justice or in some cases vengeance towards offenders (Surette, 1998). These programmes rarely focus on any mitigating circumstances of criminal behaviour and are unlikely to portray offenders in not only a sympathetic light but even a realistic fashion. On television crime is freely chosen and based on the individual problems of the offender. Analysis of crime drama reveals that greed, revenge and mental illness are the basic motivations for crime and offenders are often portrayed as ‘different’ from the general population (Lichter and Lichter, 1983: Maguire, 1998). This leads to a possible belief by viewers that all offenders are ‘monsters’ to be feared. Consequently heavy viewers may perceive crime as threatening, offenders as violent, brutal or ruthless and victims as helpless. These inaccurate presentations, as well as the portrayal of crime as inevitable or non preventable may lead to an increase in the fear of crime. The news media focus on violent crime is highly selective. Ferrell (2005:150) points out that news media representations highlight ‘the criminal victimization of strangers rather than the dangerous intimacies of domestic of family conflict’. Stanko and Lee (2003:10) note that ‘the violence in the media is constructed ‘as random’, wanton and the intentional acts of evil folk’. News reporting of crime and furthermore of the particular types of crime on which newspaper journalists disproportionately focus on, is selective and unrepresentative. News reporting of crime victims is equally so. Reiner et al stated that the foregrounding of crime victims in the media is one of the most significant qualitative changes in media representations of crime and control since the Second World War (Reiner et al. 2000a,b, 2003). Not all crime victims receive equal attention in the news media. Ocassionally intense media coverage may be devoted to victims who can be discredited on the basis of criminal promiscuous or otherwise questionable past. More often, however media resources are dedicated to the representation of those victims who can be portrayed as ideal. Christie (1986:18) describes the ideal victim as ‘a person or category of individuals who-when hit by crime-most readily are given the complete and legitimate status of being a victim’. This group includes young people. These young people attract massive levels of media attention, generate collective mourning on a near global scale, and drive significant change to a social and criminal justice policy and practice (Greer, 2004; Valier, 2004). In the summer of 2002, two 10 year old girls, Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman went missing from their home in Soham. Their disappearance attracted the biggest ever manhunt in Britain and international media attention. In 1996 two boys of similar age, Patrick Warren and David Spencer, went missing from their homes. Their disappearance failed to register much outside the local press. Shortly after 13 year old Milly Dowler went missing in 2002, the body of a teenage girl was recovered from a disused cement works in Tilbury Docks (Jewkes, 2004). Amongst media speculation that it was another missing teenager, Danielle Jones, who had disappeared almost a year earlier, the body was identified as Hannah Williams, however it was Milly’s story that continued to receive attention whilst Hannah received only a few sentences n the inside pages. Holly and Jessica were clearly seen as ideal victims. They were described using adjectives such as young, bright and energetic. They were from stable and loving middle class family backgrounds and had both achieved well at school. David and Patrick were working class, they were boys, brought up on a West Midlands council estate, in trouble at school and one of them had previously been caught shoplifting. While Holly and Jessica captured the hearts and minds of the nation, Patrick and David did not gain anywhere near as much interest and few people knew about their disappearance, much in the same way Hannah Williams was unknown. Hannah’s murder generated just over 60 articles in the British national press, mostly after she was found. In its first two weeks alone, the hunt for Holly and Jessica produced nearly 900 (Fracassini, 2002). Whilst on one hand the media sensationalise when young people are the victims of violent crimes, it also sensationalises when there is a belief that these young people are in fact the perpetrators of violent crimes. A study carried out by Young People Now, (a publication for people working with children and young people) through research firm Mori, looked at tabloids, local papers and broadsheets over the course of a week. Seventy-one percent of articles concerning young people had a negative tone, while 14 percent were positive and 15 percent were neutral. In addition, 48 percent of articles about crime and violence depicted a young person as the perpetrator, whereas only 26 percent of young people admit to committing a crime, and of those only seven percent involved the police and only a minority were violent-the most common committed crime was petty theft. The picture being painted in the media is one of violent young men with nearly 70 percent of violent stories involving boy s describing them as the perpetrator and 32 percent as the victim, while girls are described as the victim in 91 percent of cases and the offender in 10 percent (Ipsos Mori). In reality 31 percent of boys in mainstream schools admit to having committed a crime compared with 20 percent of girls and boys are more likely to be victims of violent crime than girls (Young people and the Media, 2004). Peter McIntyre, a journalist whose 30 year career has included work on the Oxford Times and editing a Unicef book of guidelines for interviewing children states that children in trouble with the law have some legal protection, but in some cases, because journalists are not allowed to name young people, they feel free to misrepresent them, contributing to the monsterisation of young people (2004). If images of violent yobs predominate, there is a risk that policy makers will respond to stereotypes rather than the true diversity of young people’s needs. The rise of the antisocial behaviour order (ASBO) was seized upon by local and national newspapers as a chance to name and shame young people. From the Sun newspaper’s proposal to hand out ‘SASBO’s (Sun Antisocial Behaviour Orders), to south London paper News’s Shopper’s Shop a Yob Bingo, papers were able to show pictures of these young people, because there were no automatic reporting restrictions on young people sentenced by civil courts, unlike youth courts. All of these reporting’s serve to further fuel media hype and moral panic surrounding young people as violent offenders. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barille, L. (1984) Television Attitudes about Crime: Do Heavy Views Distort Criminality and Support Retributive JusticeIn Ray Surette (ed.) Justice and the Media Issues and Research Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas Bryant, J. Garreth, R.A, Brown, D. (1981). Television viewing and anxiety: An Experimental Examination. Journal of Communication 31: 106-119 Christie,N. (1986) The Ideal Victim in Fattah, E. (ed), from Crime Policy to Victim Policy. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Doob, A. MacDonald, G. (1979) Television Viewing and Fear of Victimization: Is The Relationship CasualJournal of Personality and Social Psychology Ferrell, J. (2005). Crime and Culture in Hale, C. Hayward, K. Wahidin, A. And Wincup, E. (eds), Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fracassini, C. (2002) Missing, Scotland on Sunday. 18 August 2002 Greer, C. (2004). Crime, Media and Community: grief and virtual engagement in late modernity. In Ferrell, J. Hayward, K. Morrison, W. And Presdee (eds). Cultural Criminology Unleashed. London: Cavendish Jewkes, Y. (2004) Media and Crime. London: Sage Lichter, L. Lichter, S. (1983) Prime Time Crime Washington DC: Media Institute Livingstone, S. (1996). On the Continuing Problem of Media Effects. In Curran, J. Gurevitch, M (eds), Mass Media and Society. London: Arnold. Maguire, B. (1988). Image Versus Reality: An Analysis of Prime-Time Television and Police Programs. Crime and Justice II (1): 165-188 Reiner, R. (2002). Media Made Criminality: the representation of crime in the mass media. In Maguire, M. Morgan, R. Reiner, R (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Surrette, R. (1990). The Media and Criminal Justice Policy: Recent Research and Social Effects. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas Valier, C. (2005). Making Sense of the Information Age: Sociology and Cultural Studies, Information, Communications and Society, 8 (4): 439-58 How to cite Critically analyse the Media’s Focus on young people and Violent Crime, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Child Pornography On Internet Essay Example For Students

Child Pornography On Internet Essay In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of informationreadily available. Some of this information can be very useful, some can bemalicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is one of theseproblems. Any one person can find child pornography on the internet with just afew clicks of the mouse using any search engine. Despite webmasters and lawenforcement officials efforts to control child pornography and shut downillegal sites, new sites are posted using several ways to mask their identity. The Internet provides a new world for curious children. It offers entertainment,opportunities for education, information and communication. The Internet is atool that opens a window of opportunities. As Internet use grows, so do therisks of children being exposed to inappropriate material, in particular,criminal activity by paedophiles and child pornographers. Many children firstcome in contact with the Internet at a very young age. Some children becomevictims of child pornography through close relatives who may have abused them. Some children become involved with chat services or newsgroup threads. It isusually through these sites that they meet child pornographers. Children may beasked to send explicit pictures of themselves taken either by a digital cameraor scanned from a polaroid. The pornographer will then post the pictures ontheir web site, sometimes hiding them through encryption, steganography orpassword protecting them using a javascript or applet. Certain efforts have beenmade to control child pornography through legislation. In 1977 the SexualExploitation of Children Act was put into Legislation. (U.S. Code : Title 18,Section 2251-2253) The law prohibits the use of a minor in the making ofpornography, the transport of a child across state lines, the taking of apornographic picture of a minor, and the production and circulation of materialsadvertising child pornography. It also prohibits the transfer, sale, purchase,and receipt of minors when the purpose of such transfer, sale, purchase, orreceipt is to use the child or youth in the production of child pornography. Thetransportation, importation, shipment, and receipt of child pornography by anyinterstate means, including by mail or computer, is also prohibited. The ChildProtection Act of 1984 (U.S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2255) defines anyoneyounger than the age of 18 as a child. Therefore, a sexually explicit photographof anyone 17 years of age or younger is child pornography. On November 7, 1986,the U.S. Congress enacted the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act (U.S. Code: Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that banned the production and use ofadvertisements for child pornography and included a provision for civil remediesof personal injuries suffered by a minor who is a victim. It also raised theminimum sentences for repeat offenders from imprisonment of not less than twoyears to imprisonment of not less than five years. On November 18, 1988, theU.S. Congress enacted the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act (U .S. Code : Title 18, Section 2251-2256) that made it unlawful to use a computer totransmit advertisements or visual depictions of child pornography and itprohibited the buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining temporary custody orcontrol of children for the purpose of producing child pornography. On November29, 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted US Code : Title 18, Section 2252 making it afederal crime to possess three or more depictions of child pornography that weremailed or shipped in interstate or foreign commerce or that were produced usingmaterials that were mailed or shipped by any means, including by computer. Withthe passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, it is a federal crime foranyone using the mail, interstate or foreign commerce, to persuade, induce, orentice any individual younger than the age of 18 to engage in any sexual act forwhich the person may be criminally prosecuted. The Child Pornography PreventionAct of 1996 amends the definition of child pornography to inclu de that whichactually depicts the sexual conduct of real minor children and that whichappears to be a depiction of a minor engaging in sexual conduct. Computer,photographic, and photocopy technology is amazingly competent at creating andaltering images that have been morphed to look like children eventhough those photographed may have actually been adults. People who alterpornographic images to look like children can now be prosecuted under the law. .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .postImageUrl , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:hover , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:visited , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:active { border:0!important; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:active , .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf4a0caf91cf49580b9c6408805a6aa7f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Thomas Hobbes Essay ThesisAbstracts for these laws can be found at The current legislation in place at the federal and state level clearly defineschild pornography, and the standard sentencing for offenders. It also clearlydefines a minor and what activity involving a minor is illegal. What thelegislation does not do is set the standards for retreival of evidence from anelectronic device, namely computers. Also, the current legislation does not setstandards for decrypting child pornography that is protected. One example is theuse of Steganography. Steganography uses a bitstream algorithm to hideinformation in the form of raw binary code within other files suitable to holdinformation. The most commonly used form of Steganography uses the leastsignificant bit of a bitmap image to store virtually any type of information. Every three bytes in a bitmap file represents a pixel. Each of these bytesrepresents a level of red, blue or green. Since there are eight bits in a byte,there can be up to 256 different combinations of 1s and 0s in a single byte. In the case of a bitmap, each unique combination of 1s and 0s represents alevel of red, blue or green. When the colors are combined, there is thepossibility of 256^3 or 4,294,967,296 different colors. In order to hideinformation within a bitmap file, the file in which you want to hide must becopied bit for bit into the last bit of each byte in the bitmap file. This willchange each pixel of the bitmap file at the most by 1 / 2,097,152, depending onwhether the bit being copied is the same as the bit it is replacing. Since thehuman eye can only physically distinguish between an average of 250 differentcolors, a difference of 1 / 2,097,152 is indistinguishable. Since only one bitof the target bitmap is being used to store information, the source file can atmost be 1/8 of the size of the target file. In the case of a bitmap, a highresolution picture can easily hold a lower resolution picture that may containchild pornography. Legally, if a bitmap image is found to contain a hidden imageus ing steganography, there is no legal procedure for extracting that evidencefor a court case. The prosecution would have to somehow explain howsteganography works to a jury, and to the judge, and would have to prove in someway that the information found did in fact come from that bitmap file. Currently, evidence found in this manner is inadmissible in court because thereis no legislation dealing with this type of evidence. Also, there is no standardapproved software that will decode these files. There are several softwareprograms readily available on the internet which will encode or decodeinformation using the least significant bit algorithm. One example is calledHide and Seek. Anyone can obtain this software free of charge, making it easyfor child pornographers to hide their work. Another problem is illicit materialthat is stored on a remote computer. If the perpetrator of child pornographydoes not own the computer that the material is stored on, it would be difficultfor law enforcement officials to obtain a warrant to search a third partyscomputer. Also, there is currently no legislation that defines what space an amachine belongs to a specific do.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Behistun Inscription - Message to the Persian Empire

Behistun Inscription - Message to the Persian Empire The Behistun inscription (also spelled Bisitun or Bisotun and typically abbreviated as DB for Darius Bisitun) is a 6th century BCE Persian Empire carving. The ancient billboard includes four panels of cuneiform writing around a set of three-dimensional figures, cut deep into a limestone cliff. The figures are carved 300 feet (90 meters) above the Royal Road of the Achaemenids, known today as the Kermanshah-Tehran highway in Iran. Fast Facts: Behistun Steel Name of Work:  Behistun InscriptionArtist or Architect: Darius the Great, ruled 522–486 BCEStyle/Movement: Parallel CuneiformTextPeriod: Persian EmpireHeight: 120 feetWidth: 125 feetType of Work: Carved inscriptionCreated/Built: 520–518 BCEMedium: Carved Limestone BedrockLocation: Near Bisotun, IranOffbeat Fact: The earliest known example of political propagandaLanguages: Old Persian, Elamite, Akkadian The carving is located near the town of Bisotun, Iran, about 310 miles (500 kilometers) from Tehran and about 18 mi (30 km) from Kermanshah. The figures show the crowned Persian king Darius I stepping on Guatama (his predecessor and rival) and nine rebel leaders standing before him connected by ropes around their necks. The figures measures some 60x10.5 ft (18x3.2 m) and the four panels of text more than double the overall size, creating an irregular rectangle of approximately 200x120 ft (60x35 m), with the lowest part of the carving some 125 ft (38 m) above the road. Behistun Text The writing on the Behistun inscription, like the Rosetta Stone, is a parallel text, a type of linguistic text that consists of two or more strings of written language placed alongside each other so they can be easily compared. The Behistun inscription is recorded in three different languages: in this case, cuneiform versions of Old Persian, Elamite, and a form of Neo-Babylonian called Akkadian. Like the Rosetta Stone, the Behistun text greatly assisted in the decipherment of those ancient languages: the inscription includes the earliest known use of Old Persian, a sub-branch of Indo-Iranian. A version of the Behistun inscription written in Aramaic (the same language of the Dead Sea Scrolls) was discovered on a papyrus scroll in Egypt, probably written during the early years of the reign of Darius II, about a century after the DB was carved into the rocks. See Tavernier (2001) for more specifics about the Aramaic script. Royal Propaganda The text of the Behistun inscription describes the early military campaigns of the Achaemenid rule King Darius I (522–486 BCE). The inscription, carved shortly after Dariuss accession to the throne between 520 and 518 BCE, give autobiographical, historical, royal and religious information about Darius: the Behistun text is one of several pieces of propaganda establishing Dariuss right to rule. The text also includes Dariuss genealogy, a list of the ethnic groups subject to him, how his accession occurred, several failed revolts against him, a list of his royal virtues, instructions to future generations and how the text was created.   So, What Does it Mean? Most scholars agree that the Behistun inscription is a bit of political bragging. Dariuss main purpose was to establish the legitimacy of his claim to Cyrus the Greats throne, to which he had no blood connection. Other bits of Dariuss braggadocio are found in others of these trilingual passages, as well as big architectural projects at Persepolis and Susa, and the burial places of Cyrus at Pasargadae and his own at Naqsh-i-Rustam. Historian Jennifer Finn (2011) noted that the location of the cuneiform is too far above the road to be read, and few people were likely literate in any language anyway when the inscription was made. She suggests that the written portion was meant not only for public consumption but that there was likely a ritual component, that the text was a message to the cosmos about the king. Translations and Interpretations Henry Rawlinson is credited with the first successful translation in English, scrambling up the cliff in 1835, and publishing his text in 1851. The 19th-century Persian scholar Mohammad Hasan Khan Etemad al-Saltaneh (1843–96) published the first Persian translation of the Behistun translation. He noted but disputed the then-current idea that Darius or Dara might have been matched to King Lohrasp of the Zoroastrian religious and Persian epic traditions.   Israeli historian Nadav Naaman has suggested (2015) that the Behistun inscription may have been a source for the Old Testament story of Abrahams victory over the four powerful Near Eastern kings. Sources Alibaigi, Sajjad, Kamal Aldin Niknami, and Shokouh Khosravi. The Location of the Parthian City of Bagistana in Bistoun, Kermanshah: A Proposal. Iranica Antiqua 47 (2011): 117–31. Print.Briant, Pierre. History of the Persian Empire (550–330 BC). Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia. Eds. Curtis, John E., and Nigel Tallis. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. 12–17. Print.Daryaee, Touraj. Persianate Contribution to the Study of Antiquity: Etemad Al-Saltanehs Nativisation of the Qajars. Iran 54.1 (2016): 39–45. Print.Ebeling, Signe Oksefjell, and Jarie Ebeling. From Babylon to Bergen: On the Usefulness of Aligned Texts. Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies 3.1 (2013): 23–42. Print.Finn, Jennifer. Gods, Kings, Men: Trilingual Inscriptions and Symbolic Visualizations in the Achaemenid Empire. Ars Orientalis 41 (2011): 219–75. Print.Naaman, Nadav. Abrahams Victory over the Kings of the Four Quadrants in Light of Darius Is Bis itun Inscription. Tel Aviv 42.1 (2015): 72–88. Print. Olmstead, A. T. Darius and His Behistun Inscription. The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 55.4 (1938): 392–416. Print.Rawlinson, H. C. Memoir on the Babylonian and Assyrian Inscriptions. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 14 (1851): i–16. Print.Tavernier, Jan. An Achaemenid Royal Inscription: The Text of Paragraph 13 of the Aramaic Version of the Bisitun Inscription. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60.3 (2001): 61–176. Print.Wilson-Wright, Aren. From Persepolis to Jerusalem: A Reevaluation of Old Persian-Hebrew Contact in the Achaemenid Period. Vetus Testamentum 65.1 (2015): 152–67. Print.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The role of Inspector Goole in ‘An Inspector Calls’ Essays

The role of Inspector Goole in ‘An Inspector Calls’ Essays The role of Inspector Goole in ‘An Inspector Calls’ Essay The role of Inspector Goole in ‘An Inspector Calls’ Essay Essay Topic: Clueless Literature In this essay I will be discuss the role of the inspector in An Inspector Calls and evaluating his important to the play. An Inspector Calls was written by J.B Priestly in 1945 but was set in Capitalist England during 1912 during this time Socialism was beginning to catch onto society. The play depicts the story of the Birling family and how each member discovers his or her involvement with the death of a girl called Eva Smith (who also called herself Daisy Renton). An Inspector visits them while the family are having dinner, celebrating the engagement of Sheila and Gerald, Sheila being the daughter of the wealthy, prosperous and capitalist businessman Burling. His wife, Sybil is a cold woman and her husband’s social superior. Their children are Eric; a shy but assertive young man, and Sheila; a pretty young woman who is pleased with life. Gerald Croft, her new fiancà ©, is an attractive, easygoing man who is excited about his new engagement. Their celebration is interrupted by Inspector Goole, a man who creates an â€Å"impression of massiveness, solidity and purposefulness†. Soon, the story unravels and we discover how each member of the household is responsible for the suicide of Eva Smith. Between 1912 and 1945, many important events occurred, including; both World Wars, the Holocaust, the sink of the Titanic and the Wall Street Crash (resulting in hyperinflation and the great depression). The overall message of the play is to be more socially responsible by taking care of your community as a whole body of people, and to accept that there are other people who are different, or are of a lower class. Priestly wrote the play in 1945, it was set in 1912 however, as a way to reflect on how capitalists neglected their responsibilities as members of a society to care for others. Between the setting of the play and the time it was written, three major world events occurred; the sinking of the Titanic and both World Wars. Priestly set the play in 1912 to enable him to speak out as a socialist about how the capitalists should have changed their ways, almost warning them that if they did not, such events like war would occur. I know this because the inspector says â€Å"if men will not learn that lesson, they will be taught in blood, and fire, and anguish†. Priestly makes Arthur Birling’s views seem foolish, and writes him to be an ignorant and stupid character that is clueless about society and how the community can work together. Birling says â€Å"†¦the Titanic†¦unsinkable, absolutely unsinkable† and by this, I can recognise how commanding Birling is. I can also identify by how he speaks that he thinks his word is final, and that his decision means everything, even about the sinking of the Titanic. We know that the Titanic did sink, therefore making Birling seem foolish and arrogant. It is a brilliant example of dramatic irony, because the audience know that everything that Birling said would not happen, eventually did happen, and even causes a stir of inner hate at his socialist arrogance and his lack of care for society. This would have been important when this play was written, because England at this time was a Socialist country. We can tell from the stage directions on page eleven that the inspector gives an â€Å"impression of massiveness, solidity and purposefulness†. By directing the Inspector to seem purposeful, the audience begin questioning his true role in the play is he more important than just a police inspector? What exactly does he represent? We question this because of his behaviour towards the family; any traditional or ‘normal’ inspector of the time would’ve been empathetic towards the Birling’s situation and may have been capitalist too. When addressing people, the inspector stares them down and they begin explaining their encounter with Eva Smith. He has a â€Å"disconcerting habit of looking hard at the person he addresses before actually speaking†. This could scare or worry the family members into unfolding the story of how they all played a part in Eva Smith’s death. Either that or maybe his purposefulness may exist only in his gaze, which he uses to unravel the story to the family. The stage directions show the inspector’s authority with simple phrases like â€Å"cuting in, with authority†. This implies his voice is the most important, he is speaking out for the dead girl and needs to be heard above the family. This also has a political context; the socialists, who at the time the play was set, were only just getting any kind of authority. Also, as this play represents, socialists grew a voice and soon were beginning to be heard above the capitalists. Birling makes a strongly capitalist speech about how people should look after themselves and that society doesn’t matter. He says â€Å"communityand all that nonsense.† This is a perfect example of how Birling views the community as unnecessary and stupid. He deeply believes that a man should look after himself and his own, and he shows no empathy for the dead girl. Also, Birling’s focus in life is his money and class, which relates to capitalism. Birling’s speech is interrupted by the family’s maid, Edna, who introduces the Inspector. Birling welcomes him but immediately becomes defensive and boastful. The Inspector, however, is not phased. The emphasis on the Inspector’s determination and confidence shows how in control he is. He hushes the family so he can speak by â€Å"cutting in massively†, another portrayal of how commanding he is and his authority over the family. This is also represented by his knowledge, and the way he unnerves Sheila and Eric with his understanding of the whole situation. After leaving the room during Sheila and Gerald’s talk, the Inspector asks â€Å"Well?, showing the audience he already knows about Gerald’s affair to Daisy Renton. During his enquiries, the Inspector remains entirely in control; at times, he is able to â€Å"massively take charge†. Sheila regards him â€Å"wonderingly and dubiously†, later she realises no-one told him anything that he didn’t already know. Through his creation of the powerful, all-knowing nature of the character of the Inspector, and through the revelation of the incredible but very real chain of events in which every character is involved, Priestly successfully moves his audience beyond the bounds of naturalism. It is the unreal quality of the Inspector and his final prophecy of â€Å"fire and blood and anguish† referring to World War One which would start only two years after this play was set that successfully imbues the Inspector with an almost supernatural intelligence. To the Inspector, Eva Smith represents all the ‘lower class’ socialists of the time. The surname ‘Smith’ was very common at this time, again representing a vast quantity of people who were finding working life difficult. It is this that again makes us question the Inspector’s existence was he simply a voice for the lower, working class citizens of England? He says â€Å"there are millions and millions of Eva Smiths and John Smiths still left with us†¦intertwines with our lives†. He is explaining that by the family realising the consequences of their actions towards Eva Smith, they should reform themselves and treat everyone with respect. The Inspector’s timing is almost perfect, both upon arrival and when leaving. He arrives during Birling’s capitalist speech, representing how socialism would soon overpower capitalism. Also, the lighting changes, emphasising the Inspector’s important and authority in the play. The Inspector leaves at the end of his speech, which of course completely contrasts with what Birling was talking about in the beginning. The Inspector leaves just before Gerald’s return, who explains t the family that Inspector Goole is not a real inspector. This magnifies the Inspector’s mysterious character and leaves the family and the audience questioning his existence and purpose in the play.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

DNA is the most important for life Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

DNA is the most important for life - Essay Example This essay argues the DNA is the most important molecule for life. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is a nucleic molecule that functions as one of the most central aspects of living organisms. Contained within DNA are the fundamental aspects of all living things; in these regards, DNA functions as a sort of encyclopedic instruction manual for all elements within the human genetic system. Another way of viewing DNA is as a blueprint for the living organism. When new components, including RNA or proteins need to be constructed, it is the DNA that determines how these elements will be constituted. Figure 1 below demonstrates the basic DNA genetic components. It’s for these reasons it’s clear DNA is more important to the construction of life than these components. While DNA is recognized as an essential blueprint for all living organisms, it all contains a number of important live creating and sustaining functions within these organisms. One such function is that of transcription. Within DNA there are genes, which are strands of material that influence the constitution of living elements (Cooper). These genes contain genetic components influence the organism’s phenotype through transcription processes. This transcription process functions through informing the sequences of RNA and protein. During this process the codons of a gene are implemented in transcribing RNA polymerase (Pollard). This process is then decoded through ribosomes that read the base-pairing messenger elements. This process occurs in a great variety of life producing ways, with sixty-four possible combinations, making DNA a core element for daily life. This process is witnessed below in Fig. 2. Fig. 2 Transcription Another core function of DNA that makes it the most important molecule for life is witnessed in its interaction with protein in the body. All components of protein interaction rely on DNA. Some of the most notable elements in terms of life-producing components occur in the domain of structural proteins. In the interaction between DNA and structural proteins, the important life-producing element of chromatin is produced (Van Holde). This element is used for the important life functions of mitosis and meiosis. Ultimately, it’s the combination of these elements that make DNA the most important molecule for life in living organisms. In conclusion, this essay has demonstrated that Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA functions as the most important molecule for life in living organisms. While DNA functions in countless and complex ways, this essay has considered what it considers to be the most prominent such aspects. In these regards, DNA’s function as the blueprint of the living organism is considered as its primary function. In addition to this component, DNA also functions in transcription processes and in the development of chromatin. Ultimately, it’s the combination of these elements that makes DNA the most important component in living organisms. References Cooper, Geoffrey M. 2000. The Cell, 2nd edition, A Molecular Approach. Pollard, T. 2002. Cell Biology. Saunders. Van Holde KE. 1989. Chromatin. New York: